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Рассмотренные в данном разделе инструменты используются в сфере стратегического маркетинга и контроллинга. 3. Модель комплекса маркетинга «C2B». Модель 4Р – одна из теорий планирования в маркетинге и состоит из четырех координатах (направлениях). В маркетинге медицинских услуг О.А. E.J. Epstein thematizes subjects the subjective factor; the role of a journalist, editor, etc. An important role in the creation of the spectacle is played by communication, and not interpersonal, but massively: constant anesthesia goes through consumption and entertainment, guided by advertising and media culture. This means that entertainment, information, communication technologies provide a more exciting experience compared to everyday life, as well as the fact that codes and models structure social interaction. G. Debord postulates that the desires and needs of individuals are artificially formed and exploited. G. Debord says that in a society where images and appearances determine and transcend reality, individuals do not live their lives actively. He claims that if earlier it was possible to talk about the reflection of reality in the media, now communicative technologies constitute media reality, in which reality is subordinated to hyperreality, which leads to the dissolution of the real. In the approach of W. Lippman, an image is understood as a “picture arising in the mind”, a “pseudo fact” 11. The fact that the image is a pseudo fact is caused, from his point of view, by the fact that, firstly, the real world is too large, complex and variable, so as a result a person is not able to embrace it, and therefore creates a simplified model of this world.

Man does not live in the world directly, but in the abstract image of the world. The theorist introduces the concept of “pseudo-environment” and says that a person does not adapt to the environment, but to the pseudo-environment, and the act of adaptation is mediated by mass media (in particular, the press). Moreover, an individual, in principle, is not inclined to comprehend the essence of an event that does not concern him, and, secondly, the media, focusing on the audience, build information on a simplified model within the framework of stereotypes existing in society. Thus, the dominance of the “pseudo-picture” of the world is due to the fact that most part of the world is inaccessible to a person, and also because the individual cannot verify all the information coming from the media. Despite the fact that he states the totality of the play, speaks of the dominance of illusion over reality, according to the researcher, reality can be restored due to the ability of individuals to discern masked and hidden reality behind appearances and illusions. Accordingly, Elteid compare information programs not with a mirror which is reflecting reality, but with a museum in which objects are extracted from “their” position in time and space and immersed in a fundamentally different context.

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In a sense, the theory of setting the agenda represents an alternative position. In a series of similar studies, the concept of simulacra and the simulation of social processes, developed by J. Baudrillard, takes a radical position. Among russian researchers working in a similar vein, we can name M. Grachev. Moreover, this distortion can be accidental (for example, an unintentional fixation of a politician in an unseemly position, etc.) and intentional (when, this fixation is carried out for the negative positioning of a politician). K. and G. Lang assert that the modification and compulsory interpretation of reality occurs because of technical devices (for example, cameras), display style and plot comments about the subject/object/situation. Nevertheless, this thesis did not prevent S. Iyengar from coming to the conclusion that the media can act as a source of “opium” for the people, for example, by creating a false sense of national well-being, which in turn blocks the solution of many socially significant problems 7. Thus, setting the agenda, the media nevertheless distort reality. Indeed, the images of reality created by the media in reporting on events can hardly be called a “mirror image” of reality.

Or what happened to the American dream” notes that the communicator (sender of the message) can purposefully present information that is misleading, or demonstrate a picture that only partially corresponds to the truth. In our opinion, these moments not only contribute to the distortion of reality (the emergence of pseudo-reality), but also act as factors of making “distance” between true reality and the recipient of the information about the situation. In contrast to the true human needs for creation and unification, the needs for consumer goods and performances are artificial. “Performance”, on the one hand, means a society of media and consumption, organized on the basis of the consumption of images, goods and spectacles, and, on the other hand, it is the institutional and technical apparatus of modern capitalism, a set of mechanisms that lie outside the field of direct force aimed at cultivating passivity of individuals for the purpose of subsequent manipulation, as well as on concealing the influence of the power of capitalism.

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